Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Practical research assignment report outline Literature review

Down to earth research task report diagram - Literature survey Example Today there are in excess of 10 million possums in Northland alone (Northland Regional Council, 2014). The populace has expanded for the most part inferable from the non-presence of any common predators of this vermin. Studies have been done to comprehend the effect of possum invasion and fecal examination of the irritations has indicated proof of winged creature predation particularly local woodland fowls. Possums are a significant danger to neighborhood feathered creatures, for example, the kokako and kukupa (Landcare Research, 2014). Possums are likewise a significant danger to the vegetation of New Zealand. It is assessed that possums feed on right around 21,000 tons of vegetation each and every day (Landcare Research, 2014). Stoats are individuals from the Mustelid family which likewise incorporates weasels and ferrets. By 1880, New Zealand, had just experienced issues unsafe vermin, for example, bunnies and rabbits. Stoats were imported from Britain and presented in New Zealand as natural control for hares. Today, stoats are broad in many pieces of New Zealand and have themselves become mammalian vermin. They are incredibly versatile to any day to day environments where they may discover food (Dept. Of Conservation Te Papa Atawhai, 2014). Stoats are a significant worry since they are a characteristic predator of a few local fowls of New Zealand, for example, the bramble canary (yellow head) and kaka. They demolish the homes of the fowls as well as feed on their eggs and nestlings. This has prompted sharp decrease in the number of inhabitants in these backwoods winged creatures. In New Zealand three sorts of rodents the basic rodent, Pacific rodent and kiore rodent have been presented. Kiore rodents were presented by the Maori as wellspring of food. Anyway today, rodents represent a significant danger to the biodiversity of New Zealand since they feed on winged creatures, feathered creature eggs and other little spineless creatures, for example, reptiles. Utilization of synthetic compounds to oversee bugs has been end up being effective. In 2011, a proficient and others conscious toxicant Para-aminopropiophenone was presented. This

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Packaging and Labeling of Coca Cola Essay Example For Students

Bundling and Labeling of Coca Cola Essay Talk about bundling and naming choice for any result of your decision PACKAGING AND LABELING DECISION FOR COCO COLA At present Coca Cola is the market head in soda pop industry. There are different factor which have added to the development of Coca Cola. Bundling Labeling are such factors. Bundling of Coca Cola as promoting device SELF SERVICE : An expanding number of the item are sold on a self help premise. The compelling bundle must perform a considerable lot of the business assignments: an) Attract consideration b) Described item includes c) Create customer certainty ) Make a positive by and large impression CONSUMER AFFULENCE : Rising shopper opulence for Coca Cola is making the purchasers pay somewhat more for the accommodation, appearance, trustworthiness and distinction of better bundles. Organization AND BRAND IMAGE : Packaging of Coca Cola add to the moment acknowledgment of the organization or brand. Advancement OPPORTUNITY : Innovative bundling of Coca Cola has carried huge advantages to customers and benefits to makers. Bundling of Coca Cola is accomplishing a number goals. 1) Identifies the brand 2) It passes on illustrative and powerful data ) It encourages item transportation insurance 4) Assist at home stockpiling 5) Aid item utilization To accomplish the showcasing goals for the brand and fulfill the wants of purchasers, advertisers must pick the stylish and practical part of bundling effectively. Tasteful contemplations identify with a bundles size and shape, material, shading, content and illustrations. For instance Coca Cola are accessible in jugs of various sizes ( 200 ML, 300 ML, 500 ML, 2 Liter Bottle). They are likewise accessible in various shapes, materials ( Plastic, Tin Glass ) etc.Functionally auxiliary structure is vital. For instance Coca Cola bottles are anything but difficult to hold and simple to open. After the Coca Cola bundling are planned it must be tried. Designing tests guarantee that the bundle stands up under typical conditions; visual test that the content is neat and the hues amicable; Dealer tests seller discover the bundles attaractive and simple to deal with; and the customer tests, that purchasers will react well. Eye following by shrouded cameras can evaluate how much customers see and look at bundles

Thursday, July 30, 2020

How to Prepare a Marketing Audit to Shape Your Marketing Strategy

How to Prepare a Marketing Audit to Shape Your Marketing Strategy Much of the success of any business is riding on its marketing strategy. It may have abundant resources, with a management team composed of brilliant and innovative minds, and teams of hardworking employees diligently and passionately performing their tasks. However, the business will never be able to grow, and succeed in achieving its organizational goals if it does not have a marketing strategy in place.The growth of a business is closely linked to how its image is developed and presented to the market, and how it is able to establish a presence in that market. To accomplish that, there is a need to work on creating and increasing its brand awareness, which inevitably leads to increased profitability and accelerated growth.In the process, this will also widen the reach of the business organization and aid in strengthening the bonds established between the business and its clients or customers.The million dollar question is: what goes into the development of a marketing strategy? Bu sinesses devote a lot of time and resources in crafting a strategy that will help propel the organization toward its goals. Several factors are considered, and more than one or two processes are undergone. One of these activities or processes is a marketing audit. © Shutterstock.com | ESB ProfessionalIn this guide, we explore 1) what is a marketing audit, 2) the importance of marketing audits, 3) the different components and types of marketing audits, and 4) how to perform a marketing audit.WHAT IS A MARKETING AUDIT?In author Bruce Clark’s words, a marketing audit is “a comprehensive, systematic, independent and periodic examination of a company’s or a business unit’s marketing” and it is “designed to evaluate marketing assets and activities in the context of marketing conditions, and use the resulting analysis to aid the firm in planning.” The planning that is referred to in that statement points to the marketing strategy, which will be documented in detail in a marketing plan.Through a marketing audit, data on the internal and external environment of a business is gathered and analyzed in a structured and systematic manner, and the results thereof are used to aid the formulation of a marketing strategy. In other words, a busin ess cannot come up with a marketing strategy unless it has performed a marketing audit.The marketing audit may be performed by members of the organization, aided by members of the marketing team, or management may go with the option of getting help from external marketing auditors or consultants. Since it is considered to be a prerequisite of a marketing plan, marketing audit is to be performed at the beginning, before the planning process starts.However, it does not stop there. Marketing audit is actually conducted frequently and almost regularly, which means that it is also being performed alongside the implementation of the plans.IMPORTANCE OF A MARKETING AUDITAside from the obvious, which is the formulation of a marketing strategy, a marketing audit benefits a business in more ways than one.A marketing audit provides management an in-depth look and evaluation at the marketing of a business, paying particular attention at how its marketing activities are planned, implemented and managed.A marketing audit pinpoints the marketing efforts and practices that are working perfectly, those that are not, and those that need more work. This leads to the identification of marketing weaknesses and strengths of the company, as well as its marketing threats and opportunities. In fact, throughout the course of the audit, management may discover inefficiencies that it never knew existed.A marketing audit’s systematic and structured approach makes the whole process of developing a marketing strategy easier. You don’t know where to start when making a marketing plan? Refer to the findings and recommendations of the marketing audit.A marketing audit enables the company to make corrections, or catch errors or mistakes before they can cause serious damage. A marketing activity is being implemented poorly? Then the company can apply the necessary changes and adjustments.Ultimately, performance of a marketing audit is in aid of the greater function of top management, which i s decision-making, specifically on matters regarding marketing. Any major decisions that will be made with respect to the company’s marketing activities will be based on the results of the audit. COMPONENTS AND TYPES OF MARKETING AUDITMarketing audit covers a very broad area, with the auditors required to look into. There are seven identified types of marketing audit, and they fall under three components or audit key headings: the external environment, the internal environment, and the current marketing strategy of the company.External EnvironmentMacro-environment audit, which takes a look at the external factors that affect the marketing performance of the company.Demographic factors, where you will take into account the demography of the consumers in the market, such as their age, gender, employment status, and others.Economic factors, which includes assessment of taxation policies and a look at the prevailing economic indicators, such as interest rates and inflation levels.Cult ural factors, which may also affect the marketing performance of the company, and they include the religions and beliefs of consumers, the lifestyle that they practice and how consumerism figures in that lifestyle.Environmental factors, which may include technologies and systems that are used and in place, and have a significant impact on marketing in general. Examples are the evolution of internet, the adoption of mobile technologies, and the development of new marketing and information systems.Political factors, which often have a tendency to affect the economy and overall environment of the markets, are also considered. Issues such as property laws, tariff regulations, and other labor legislation must be looked into. Political unrest and lack of stability in leadership in government are also taken into account.Task environment audit, which focuses on the factors that are outside the company, but are still closely associated with its marketing activities and operations.We take int o account the size and other unique features of the markets and the industry that the company belongs to. Here, some of the things that are considered are the nature of segmentation, targeting and positioning, and whether the company adheres to it.The customers have great power over the success of a company’s marketing, so it’s just right to include them in the audit. This involves probing into the needs of the customers and how they seek to satisfy these needs, their consumer behavior and what influences their purchasing decisions. It is also important to find out how they perceive the company’s brand, and gauge the level of loyalty that they have to it.The audit goes beyond mere identification of the competitors, or determining their number or concentration in the market. When assessing the competitive landscape, the areas looked into also include the level of growth and profitability of the competitors, their strengths and weaknesses, and their marketing strategies.Distribu tors and Retailers. How is your relationship with distributors, retailers, and other third parties managed, and what is the extent of the impact of that relationship on the company’s marketing. This is simply one of the questions that must be answered during the audit.Internal EnvironmentMarketing organization audit, where the staff or the labor force of the company is evaluated on their performance, with respect to their positions and functions, and the place they occupy in the organizational structure.Marketing function audit, which will review the core competencies of the company. It will have to review the company’s product, pricing policies, choice of distribution channels, means of marketing communication, and the role of the sales force. For example, with respect to the product, the audit will focus on identifying how it compares to the competition. It will also look into the price points of the product, and how they are compared to the price points of competitors.Marketi ng systems audit, or the audit of the marketing systems currently in use by the company. Examples are a Marketing Information System, Marketing Control System, and even a New Product Development System in many cases.Current Marketing StrategyMarketing strategy audit, which will revisit the company’s mission and vision, its marketing goals and objectives, and the marketing strategies that are formulated with a view to improve the company’s overall marketing. One of the main questions that must be answered after the audit is whether the current strategies adopted and being implemented by the company in its marketing are proper and appropriate, with respect to the resources of the company.Marketing productivity audit, where the auditors will evaluate the effectiveness of the marketing activities that have been â€" or are being â€" performed or carried out. The most common benchmarks used are cost-effectiveness and profitability.CHARACTERISTICS OF A MARKETING AUDITIn the performance of a marketing audit, it is imperative to keep the following characteristics in mind.The audit must be comprehensive, encompassing all the marketing issues that the company is dealing with.The audit must be systematic, following a sequence of steps in collecting and analyzing data on the company’s external and internal marketing environment and the marketing activities currently being implemented. The results of the analysis will eventually lead to the crafting of an action plan aimed at improving the markets and the company’s position in it.The audit must be independent, in the sense that the auditors are able to demonstrate an acceptable level of independence from the marketing department. This is to ensure their objectivity and impartiality which, in turn, will command the trust of top management.The audit must be conducted on a periodic basis, making it a regular business activity, instead of a stop-gap measure to deal with a crisis or troubleshoot a problem only when it ar ises.PERFORMING THE MARKETING AUDIT PROCESSThere are no fixed guidelines when it comes to the performance of a marketing audit. After all, companies are not all the same. They have different structures, and they have different goals and priorities, which means they are likely to have different reasons for conducting a marketing audit. However, the general approach in the performance of one is largely the same.There are three phases or stages in the marketing audit process, and they are:Phase 1: Pre-Audit1. Determine the key persons who will conduct the audit.The company has two options: i. Self-auditManagement forms a marketing audit team, composed of employees of the organization. They could assign the head of Marketing to evaluate his own department, evaluating the effectiveness of the marketing activities it implemented, and identifying the department’s strengths and weaknesses.If management is afraid that this will violate the principle of independence and will have issues on objectivity, the marketing audit team may be staffed with employees from another unit performing related activities or function, or he may also direct the executive with higher authority over the activity or department being audited to perform the marketing audit.In some cases, the company forms its own task-force audit team, which is composed of executives or members of senior management. Large corporations even set up an independent auditing unit or office, which will be tasked exclusively to perform marketing audits for the company. ii. Outside auditThis is simple and straightforward enough: the company hires the services of an outside auditor to perform the marketing audit. It could be an individual private practitioner, or an agency specializing in marketing audits.Between the two, outside audit is seen as the more reliable, since it guarantees more objectivity and independence on the part of the auditors, thus ensuring a more effective audit.When choosing people to perform mar keting audit, picking the audit team members randomly is not a good idea. Each of the auditors must possess the required knowledge and experience in order to perform the marketing audit effectively. They should also be able to demonstrate objectivity, in order to avoid biases and pre-judgment from affecting the reliability of the results of the audit.A point person, or the person who will oversee the marketing audit must be identified. Thus, it is important that the person who will be chosen to lead the marketing audit team have the necessary know-how and experience in the conduct of an audit.2. Determine the timing of performance of audit.Set the timetable for the audit: When will it start? How often will it be performed?For marketing audit to be effective, it must be conducted regularly or periodically, not just at the beginning of the preparation of a marketing strategy. Take into account the volatile nature of the market. This is bound to have an effect on the marketing strategi es. The company has to tweak its plan from time to time in order to make sure it is updated and relevant. That means that there is a need to perform periodic checks or evaluations, taking into account the changes applied or implemented.3. Establish the scope and objectives of the audit.There is a need to lay out the scope and objectives of the audit, in order for the members of the audit team to be guided accordingly.The objectives have to be clear as to be understood by everyone, especially those who are going to be involved in the audit. The objective will be your starting point, since it will be your reference when identifying the next set of steps in the audit process.It is also crucial to identify all the stakeholders that are going to be involved in the audit â€" whether directly or indirectly.4. Determine and establish the methodology to be used.The process that will be followed by the marketing audit team in the performance must be identified and established. This also inclu des the methods, techniques, and tools that will be used, particularly in data collection and data analysis.Phase 2: Audit properDepending on the methodology established prior, the main body of the audit process may include varying numbers of steps and sub steps. However, the main steps may be summarized into three:1. Data gathering and collectionThis is deemed to be the most tedious and time-consuming part of the entire audit process. It can also be quite an expensive endeavor.Research is, quite possibly, the most popular and tried-and-tested method of gathering data. Research sources include published data and other standardized sources of marketing data. Industry publications, for example, are a fount of information.Historical internal records of the company are also considered as primary sources of information, which is why they are subjected for review during a marketing audit. Examples are business documents and marketing records such as the business plan, marketing plan, trai ning plans, marketing budget and the organizational structure along with job descriptions. If the marketing department has systems and processes in place, these may also be used to collect data.Surveys or questionnaires are often floated to chosen respondents. In several cases, the marketing audit team may also be required to conduct interviews to get more data. It is also common to see members of the audit team going on-site for firsthand observations and walk-throughs of the marketing processes.Data collected will pertain to the three main components: the external environment, the internal environment, and the existing or current marketing strategy of the company.They will then be organized for analysis.2. Data analysisThis is the core of the audit process, where the audit team will build a complete picture of the marketing program, or the strategies used by the company, through subjecting the data collected to analysis.In brief, some of the tools used in data analysis are:SWOT (S trengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysisThis audit tool is used for analysis of data on the three components. The strengths and weaknesses are geared towards the inter environment and the marketing strategy of the company, while the opportunities and threats pertain to the external environment.Five Forces AnalysisThis tool developed by Porter is used for analysis of the external environment, particularly the competitive environment of the company. Its points of focus are the five forces:Competition in the industry: This takes a look at the competition. How many competitors do you have? How do their offerings compare to yours?Threat of entry of new players in the industry: Is the industry or market the company belongs to vulnerable to the entry of new product or service providers? How vulnerable is it?Customer power: What are the chances that your customers will decide to buy from the competition? What would motivate them to do so?Supplier power: Look at the relationshi p of the company with its suppliers.What are the problems often encountered in your dealings?Threat of substitute products: Is there a chance that the customers may find other products or services that will substitute what you currently offer?PEST AnalysisPEST stands for Political, Environmental, Socio-cultural and Technological analysis, which means it focuses on the macro-environment or the external factors. Examples of issues that the audit will include in its analysis are:Stability of the political environmentEconomic policy of the governmentExtent of influence of government policies and laws on business and tax regulationPrevailing interest and exchange ratesInflation levelsMarket perception of foreign products and servicesEffect of religion, language and gender issues on consumerismImpact of technologies in marketing, distribution and consumerismAnalysis should provide insight into the following:The performance of the marketing program of the company;The marketing team’s ski lls, knowledge and competencies, and their individual and collective performance;The alignment of the objectives of marketing to that of the goals of the organization; andThe execution and communication of the marketing programs.3. Preparation of recommendationsThe final output of the audit process is documented in what is commonly known as a “marketing audit report”. The main concern of the recipients or beneficiaries of the audit, which is often the management and the marketing team, is the Recommendations section. The recommendations will be based on the results of the analysis of information.When making recommendations, present them in a prioritized list, for easier comprehension by management and other stakeholders.Phase 3: Post-AuditThe Marketing Audit Report must be presented to management, who will use it for decision-making on its marketing strategies. There are instances when the report will also be disseminated to other departments in the company, especially if they a re indirectly involved in the marketing activities and their functions will have an impact on the company’s marketing efforts.It is to be noted that the recommendations are not going to be accepted blindly or easily by management. It is likely that they will still undergo lengthy discussions until all parties are satisfied and comfortable enough to make major marketing strategy decisions.CONCLUSIONIt has often been said that marketing is the lifeblood of any business or organization. Therefore, to keep the organization alive, there is a need to keep the blood healthy and flowing. The regular conduct of a marketing audit is one way to make sure of that.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Obesity Has Established Itself - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 855 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2019/03/22 Category Health Essay Level High school Tags: Obesity Essay Obesity in America Essay Did you like this example? Obesity has established itself as one of the fastest growing diseases in the nation and continues to make a substantial impact on the general population today. The sheer number of individuals who can be classified as obese in the U.S. has made obesity synonymous with the identity of an American. Dietitians and Psychologists have argued over the various causes as to why the number of Obesity is rising so much in American people. However undeniably, the fast food industry and its alluring advertisements is a major cause of Obesity in America. Obesity is a condition in which the body accumulates an abnormally large amount of adipose tissue, or fat (DeAngelo et al.). The concept of what qualifies an individual to be obese has been skewed by the media. Shows, such as My 600-lb Life and The Biggest Loser, portray individuals who are exceptionally obese as a standard example of an obese individual. Obesity is identified using the Body Mass Index (BMI), the measurement of a person using weight in relation to height. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, to be considered obese an individual must have a BMI of 30 or over. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Obesity Has Established Itself" essay for you Create order That means that an individual with a height of 59 and weight of 203 lbs. or more is considered obese. Thus, proving that obesity is much more feasible for individuals in America than one many think. About 38 percent of American adults were obese in 2013 and 2014, up from 35 percent in 2011 and 2012 (Tavernise). Food has always been a key signifier of what a culture may value. The preparation, ingredients, and customs that revolve around food are all fundamental in the examination of any group of people. As a result, what people choose to eat can reveal where their priorities lie and what sort of lifestyle they have. Quintessential examples of fast food, such as hamburgers, hotdogs, french-fries, and friend chicken, have become associated as standard American foods. The fast food industrys popularity continues to grow and plays a pivotal role in the development of American identity. Over the past decade the industry has grown rapidly into a multibillion-dollar business. According to the International Business Times, in 2012, the total revenue generated by the fast food industry totaled $195.19 billion (International Business Times). Fast food is loved for its convenience, affordable prices, and taste. Before the industry came to be, people were restricted in how they could satisfy their hunger because of the length of time required to cook and prepare a meal. People now have more convenient options because of the availability of fast food. The fast food industry has provided ways for people to shorten the time required to make and consume meals while being especially ideal for those in automobiles. This emphasis on speed fits perfectly into contemporary American life. The major drawback of fast food is its nutritional value. Fast foods tend t o be highly processed, full of added sugars, salt, saturated fats, or trans fats. For perspective, based on the McDonalds website the nutrition value of a Big Mac with large fries and a large Coke contains 1,330 calories, 52 g of fat, 1,360mg of sodium. The U.S. dietary guidelines generally recommend individuals consume no more than 2,000 calories, 65 grams of fat, and 2,300 milligrams of sodium per day (Americas Best Worst Fast Food). Based off this, that means from one meal from McDonalds an individual is getting 66.5% of the daily caloric intake, 80% of the daily fat intake, and 59.1% of the daily sodium intake. If the individual decides to eat a fast food restaurant more than once a day, they will more than likely surpass their dietary guidelines. It is much easier to over eat in America A crucial component to the escalation of the fast food industry is advertising. The constant exposure to advertisements has compelled millions of Americans to love fast food using various tactics such as, key words, repetition, claims, association, bandwagon, and promotions. Who wouldnt want a delicious and delectable cheeseburger for the low price of $1 at your local McDonalds. Additionally, advertisements made by fast food promote an image of happiness with friends and families spending time together. People believe, or want to believe, that they will be happy when they purchase the food because the actors appear content. There are no overweight people in fast food ads; actors are in shape and smiling. Obesity was bound to become a part of Americas identity. Americas cultural values, efficiency, capitalism, etc., with the creation of fast food was a recipe for success. Americans fell in love with the concept and how they could alleviate another nuisance from their daily lives, the stress of cooking. The promise of a cheap and quick meal was too good, and nobody wanted to question it. However, as of recent years Americans are becoming more health and nutrition conscious, but only after 38% of the population has been classified as obese. Fast food is not the only cause of obesity, other factors such as, lack of physical activity, nutrition education, medical history, mental illnesses, and much more are also responsible. Nevertheless, fast food and its advertising are rooted to the cause of Americas identity as obese.

Sunday, May 10, 2020

Colombian Independence Day July 20, 1810

On July 20, 1810, Colombian patriots stirred the population of Bogotà ¡ into street protests against Spanish rule. The Viceroy, under pressure, was forced to agree to allow for a limited independence which later became permanent. Today, July 20 is celebrated in Colombia as Independence Day. An Unhappy Population The were numerous reasons for independence. The emperor Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Spain in 1808, imprisoned King Ferdinand VII, and put his brother Joseph Bonaparte on the Spanish throne, infuriating most of Spanish America. In 1809, New Granada politician Camilo Torres Tenorio wrote his famous Memorial de Agravios (â€Å"Remembrance of Offenses†) about repeated Spanish slights against Creoles—native-born descendants of early French, Spanish, and Portuguese settlers—who often could not hold high offices and whose trade was restricted. His sentiments were echoed by many. By 1810, the people of New Granada (now Colombia) were unhappy with Spanish rule. Pressure for Colombian Independence By July of 1810, the city of Bogota was a holdout for Spanish rule in the region. To the south, leading citizens of Quito had attempted to wrest control of their government from Spain in August of 1809: this revolt had been put down and the leaders were thrown in a dungeon. To the east, Caracas had declared provisional independence on April 19. Even within New Granada, there was pressure: the important seaside city of Cartagena had declared independence in May and other small towns and regions had followed suit. All eyes turned to Bogota, the seat of the Viceroy. Conspiracies and Flower Vases Bogota’s patriots had a plan. On the morning of the 20th, they would ask well-known Spanish merchant Joaquà ­n Gonzalez Llorente to borrow a flower vase with which to adorn a table for a celebration in honor of Antonio Villavicencio, a well-known patriot sympathizer. It was assumed that Llorente, who had a reputation for irascibility, would refuse. His refusal would be the excuse to provoke a riot and force the Viceroy to hand power over to the Creoles. Meanwhile, Joaquà ­n Camacho would go to the Viceregal palace and request an open council: the rebel leaders knew that this, too, would be refused. Camacho proceeded to the home of Viceroy Antonio Josà © Amar y Borbà ³n, where the petition for an open town meeting regarding independence was predictably denied. Meanwhile, Luà ­s Rubio went to ask Llorente for the flower vase. By some accounts, he refused rudely, and by others, he declined politely, forcing the patriots to go to plan B, which was to antagonize him into saying something rude. Either Llorente obliged them or they made it up: it didn’t matter. Patriots ran through the streets of Bogota, claiming that both Amar y Borbà ³n and Llorente had been rude. The population, already on edge, was easy to incite. Riot in Bogota The people of Bogota took to the streets to protest Spanish arrogance. The intervention of Bogota Mayor Josà © Miguel Pey was necessary to save the skin of the unfortunate Llorente, who was attacked by a mob. Guided by patriots like Josà © Marà ­a Carbonell, the lower classes of Bogota made their way to the main square, where they loudly demanded an open town meeting to determine the future of the city and New Granada. Once the people were sufficiently stirred up, Carbonell then took some men and surrounded the local cavalry and infantry barracks, where the soldiers did not dare attack the unruly mob. Meanwhile, patriot leaders returned to Viceroy Amar y Borbà ³n and tried to get him to consent to a peaceful solution: If he agreed to hold a town meeting to elect a local governing council, they would see to it that he would be part of the council. When Amar y Borbà ³n hesitated, Josà © Acevedo y Gà ³mez made an impassioned speech to the angry crowd, directing them to the Royal Audience, where the Viceroy was meeting with the Creoles. With a mob at his doorstep, Amar y Borbà ³n had no choice but to sign the act which permitted a local ruling council and eventually independence. Legacy of the July 20 Conspiracy Bogotà ¡, like Quito and Caracas, formed a local ruling council which supposedly would rule until such time as Ferdinand VII was restored to power. In reality, it was the sort of measure that cannot be undone, and as such was the first official step on Colombias path to freedom which would culminate in 1819 with the Battle of Boyacà ¡ and Simà ³n Bolà ­vars triumphant entry into Bogotà ¡. Viceroy Amar y Borbà ³n was allowed to sit on the council for a while before being arrested. Even his wife was arrested, mostly to appease the wives of Creole leaders who detested her. Many of the patriots involved in the conspiracy, such as Carbonell, Camacho, and Torres, went on to become important leaders of Colombia over the next few years. Although Bogotà ¡ had followed Cartagena and other cities in rebellion against Spain, they did not unite. The next few years would be marked by such civil strife between the independent regions and cities that the era would become known as the Patria Boba which roughly translates as Idiot Nation or Foolish Fatherland. It wasnt until Colombians began fighting the Spanish instead of one another that New Granada would continue on its path to freedom. Colombians are very patriotic and enjoy celebrating their Independence Day with feasts, traditional food, parades, and parties. Sources Bushnell, David. The Making of Modern Colombia: A Nation in Spite of Itself. University of California Press, 1993.Harvey, Robert. Liberators: Latin Americas Struggle for Independence Woodstock: The Overlook Press, 2000.Lynch, John. The Spanish American Revolutions 1808-1826 New York: W. W. Norton Company, 1986.Santos Molano, Enrique. Colombia dà ­a a dà ­a: una cronologà ­a de 15,000 aà ±os. Bogota: Planeta, 2009.Scheina, Robert L. Latin Americas Wars, Volume 1: The Age of the Caudillo 1791-1899 Washington, D.C.: Brasseys Inc., 2003.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Plato Defends Rationalism Free Essays

Plato Defends Rationalism Plato was a highly educated Athenian Philosopher. He lived from 428-348 B. C. We will write a custom essay sample on Plato Defends Rationalism or any similar topic only for you Order Now Plato spent the early portion of his life as a disciple to Socrates, which undoubtedly helped shape his philosophical theories. One topic that he explored was epistemology. Epistemology is the area of philosophy that deals with questions concerning knowledge, and that considers various theories of knowledge (Lawhead 52). Plato had extremely distinct rationalistic viewpoints. Rationalism is the claim that reason, or intellect, is the primary source of our fundamental knowledge about reality (55). By examining Plato’s philosophical position on the three basic epistemological questions, as well as analyzing his ability to justify the three anchor points of rationalism, it is clear to see that Plato was successful in defending rationalism. There are three basic questions that are the basis for determining the difference between each of the epistemological viewpoints. The first of these is: Is knowledge possible? In order to understand exactly what is being asked here, it is important to consider the agreed definition of knowledge as being a â€Å"true justified belief† (53). Plato believed that yes, it is possible to have knowledge. He claimed that as long as one has the ability to recognize something as false, they are capable of having knowledge. The second question is: Does reason provide us with knowledge of the world independently of experience? Plato would also answer yes to this question as well. Many objected to this, believing that knowledge was a result of sense experience rather than reason. Plato examined this theory (empiricism); he argued that, because the physical world is subject to change, there can be no real truth in knowledge that is based solely on one’s senses. He then used the examples Justice, Goodness, and Equality to justify his argument that there are some things that we cannot come to know through experience alone, thus casting doubt on the empiricist theory. Plato expands on the teachings of Socrates, and acknowledges the concept that we already have ideas or principles that are contained in our mind prior to experience, called innate ideas (73). The third and final question is: Does our knowledge represent reality as it really is? To this question, he would answer yes. Plato’s distinction between innate ideas and sense experience bring us to understand his true sense of reality. Our innate ideas are the foundation from which we are able to possess rational knowledge. Rational knowledge, as Plato explains, gives us the ability to differentiate between invariable â€Å"Forms† (Universals) and the ever changing characteristics that are recognized through sense experiences. Plato believes that knowledge of Universals provide us with knowledge of the fundamental features of reality, which are nonphysical, eternal, and unchanging (81). The three anchor points of Rationalism expand on the question discussed above, Does reason provide us with knowledge of the world independently of experience? The first anchor point is: Reason is the primary or most superior source of knowledge about reality (72). Plato proves this point to be true by determining that it is through unchanging, Universal knowledge, that we come to find reality. The second anchor point is: Sense experience is an unreliable and inadequate route to knowledge (73). Plato questions the reliability and adequacy of sense experience, due to the fact that there are things that we are simply unable to experience in the physical world. If knowledge comes strictly from experience, and we are unable to experience some things, how is it that we come to find such knowledge? Plato also argues that sense experiences are subject to individual interpretation, and are ever changing. Knowledge cannot be based on inconstant perception. The final anchor point of rationalism is: The fundamental truths about the world can be known a priori (independently of, or prior to, experience): They are either innate or self-evident to our minds (73). Plato believed that knowledge was contained in our soul from preexistence, and was independent of human experiences. He came to the conclusion that it is from these innate ideas that we are able to recognize reality. Plato’s view on epistemology is extremely consistent with that of rationalism. He was able to successfully justify his beliefs, not only by proving his theory, but also by disproving alternative theories. Plato recognized the fact that knowledge is possible. He believed that the ability to identify something as false can only come from knowing truth. This was the first step in his philosophical journey. In his quest to determine the source, and explore the characteristics of knowledge, he made several valid arguments. Plato’s strongest argument was that we cannot base our knowledge directly on experience, because there are circumstances in which our senses do not provide us with reliable truths. Not only did this make it apparent that experience is not concrete enough to act as a basis for knowledge, thus disproving the imperialistic theory, but it also helped justify his theory of Universals. Plato was able to prove that reason, by way of innate ideas, leads us to knowledge, as it was defined above, a true justified belief. This rational knowledge, in turn, leads us to the knowledge of reality. Plato spent much of his life studying philosophy, and the concept of knowledge. After finding fault in other epistemological theories, he was led to develop a philosophy of his own. Plato’s approach toward epistemology was considerably different from that of other philosophers in his day. His rationalistic viewpoints were extremely influential. He brought light to the concept of Universals, which had a great impact on the work of philosophers after him. Plato was able to explain knowledge from all aspects, which set him apart from others. Plato was not only able to conclude that knowledge is possible, he was also able to explain how knowledge is obtained. By examining Plato’s philosophical position on the three basic epistemological questions, as well as analyzing his ability to justify the three anchor points of rationalism, it is clear to see that Plato was successful in defending rationalism. Works Cited Lawhead, William F. The Philosophical Journey: An Interactive Approach. 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011. 52-81. Print How to cite Plato Defends Rationalism, Papers

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

Poem comparison-Half Caste Essay Example

Poem comparison-Half Caste Paper This also shows the subtlety of women compared to men, as the word fragrance is a far more delicate word than chains, this shows the different way men and women can fight. Men use force, and women have subtle ways. Also, in half Caste we are more given an image of using half of you because of the prejudice, where as in I am not that Woman it is more a feel that they are attempting to stop her completely and she is fighting that. That fact could also explain why I am not that Woman comes across as the stronger poem. In Half Caste you are given the idea that, although the person is restricted, they are still able to do things, whereas in I am not that Woman there is more an idea that the people doing the discriminating are trying to completely control her. In both of the poems we are made to feel that the person being discriminated against is the one in the right, with the majority of people (meaning the ones doing the discriminating) being the ones in the wrong. In I am not that Woman this is done by referring to the woman as a fragrance. The people who are normal are mentioned though chains and walls of stones. We will write a custom essay sample on Poem comparison-Half Caste specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Poem comparison-Half Caste specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Poem comparison-Half Caste specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer These things are associated with bad and unpleasant things, where as a fragrance is linked to good and sweet things. This emphasizes the idea that the people doing the discriminating are in the wrong, as they are described as chains and walls of stones with the person being discriminated against compared to innocent things such as fragrance and light. Also, we are given an impression of the woman being almost angel or god like, with mentions of I can walk on water and my chastity, my motherhood, my loyalty. The latter seems to be like the Virgin Mary, and the former is like Jesus. In Half Caste this idea is not communicated as directly, although there is still a feel that the mixed race person is good, and is simply confused as to why the other bad people do not accept him. There is certainly no evidence of the person doing anything wrong. The poems are both descriptive and written in free verse. They have no rhythm or rhyme scheme and are simply written in the same way you would speak. I am not Woman seems to have slightly more structure, especially as capital letters are used and in Half Caste they are not, which I believe is to add the idea that the person is unsure of himself. This in turn adds to the idea of I am not that Woman being a stronger poem, as capital letters are used to emphasise and embolden things, as well as obvious proper uses. In Half Caste even the proper uses are dropped to show that at no point is the person brave enough to draw attention to anything regarding himself. Both of the poems are written by foreign people, with John Agard who wrote Half Caste coming from Guyana and Kishwar Naheed, the author of I am not that Woman from Asia. Both of the poems are written from the same viewpoint, which is that of the person who is being discriminated against. In my opinion, this makes the poems much more closely linked, because it is easy to compare the feeling of two people going through similar things. If they were written from different viewpoints, it would make them quite the opposite of each other, as essentially they would be about different things. One would be about doing the discriminating and the other would be about how the discriminating causes you to suffer. The poems consider the same aspect of the theme, although the person it is about deals with it differently. The mood in Half Caste starts of with a very questioning air, which is sustained throughout, although it gets slightly more demanding and almost mysterious, saying come back tomorrow wid de whole of yu eye an de whole of yu ear an de whole of yu mind. and I will tell yu de other half my story. The mood in I am not that Woman is much more aggressive and commanding, and stays this way throughout the whole poem, saying things such as remember me and the frequent use of the assertive I am not. These words are all written in an imperative form which creates the strong feeling in the poem that is quite different to the sort of vague questioning style of Half Caste There is a lot of imagery in I am not that Woman, most linked either to contrasting right and wrong ideas, and religious concepts. This creates a poem that is easy to identify with, as it is using examples that are everyday things, such as stone walls and fragrance. Half Caste uses very little imagery, with much more emphasis on repetition to get the point of unfair discrimination across. It repeats explain yuself time and time again, and so the idea that the person is confused as to what the whites mean, becomes very firmly embedded in the readers mind. In my view, these poems are quite strongly linked, despite the differences in the way the message is communicated. They deal with very similar matters (both are about being prejudiced against somebody), but the most obvious difference between the two is that in I am not that Woman the person is fighting it, and in Half Caste it is being accepted, or at least only questioned and not fought. In some ways, this connects the poems as a pair, as they show the two different ways that prejudice can be dealt with, while both still showing how unfair and unnecessary it is. However, this does not make them different, but connects them more powerfully, as they are excellent examples of the different ways the same situation can be dealt with. I believe that the poems set out to create the two different aspects of dealing with discrimination that they very successfully achieve. Half Caste maintains its slightly apologetic and almost ironic view on things the whole way through where I am not that Woman manages to stay strong and powerful for the entirety. Both of the poems persuade the reader to support the same viewpoint that it is writing from, which is that the person being discriminated against is the one having a hard time of things and that is it unjust. Both of the poems manage to move the reader to really sympathise with the unfairness the subjects of the poems are experiencing. Overall, I prefer the poem Half Caste as I feel that it is written with more genuine feeling than I am not that Woman. I like the way that it is entirely written in lower case as I think it is a very simple way of getting a point across. I also like the constant idea of half as I find it very meaningful. The ideas around people not listening to him properly also strike a chord. It is a more subtle poem as it makes less use of the obvious imagery that I am not that Woman uses. I find this makes it a rewarding poem to read as you need to understand the deeper meaning more to fully grasp the aim of it. All in all I like the almost apologetic air that Half Caste has more than the powerful side of I am not that Woman. Despite my personal preference, these poems are both extremely well written and thought out, and the ideas and morals behind them come across very strongly.   Rebecca Britton Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE John Agard: Half-Caste section.